Nursing theories address the same four concepts: the person (the recipients of nursing care including individuals, families, and communities), the environment (the surroundings of the client internally and externally), health (the client’s state of well-being), and nursing itself (the action taken while providing care to a patient) (Friberg, 2011). These concepts should direct nursing practice within an organization and individual nurses’ practice. Person In developing my definition of person, I found myself agreeing with Watson’s and Leininger’s theories and models.
From Leininger, a person is caring, a cultural being who perceives health, illness, caring, curing, dependence, and independence differently, and from Watson a person is seen as an entity that is non-reducible and is interconnected with others and nature (Friberg, 2011). In my readings and considerations of what “person” means to me in nursing, I have concluded that to me every person is unique. Their health and sickness will be unique to them and their circumstance.
Their illness will need to be cared for and in their illness they will be vulnerable which may change their ‘person’ for a time. Every family and every community is also uniquely different and needs to be embraced and recognized for that uniqueness. All need to be respected and each nurse needs be educated enough to recognize this in their practice and treat the person appropriately; not everyone can be treated the same, medically or personally. Person, health, and environment are entwined and do not exist solely without one another.
A person has health whether good or bad and their environment either fosters or hinders that health. Health In developing my definition of health I agreed most with Nightingale’s theory that health is a state of well-being; using an individual’s power to the fullest, Roger’s theory that health is a pattern of living in harmony with the environment, Neuman’s theory of health as optimal system stability and with Watson’s theory that health is unity and harmony within mind body and soul (Friberg, 2011).
Health is not just the absence of illness. Health is a state of being that includes physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual aspects. I believe that they have to be balanced and support one another for optimal health. You can use your other stronger areas to help when one is not as ‘healthy’ or may be lacking. I believe that person, community and family together with environment have a huge impact on a person’s health; they either support or bring down a person’s well-being. Environment
In developing my definition of environment I found myself agreeing with Nightingale’s theory in that it describes conditions external to the person that affect both sick and well people, King’s theory in that the environment is interactive with the individual, Roy’s model in that internal and external conditions that surround and affect individuals, Neuman’s model stating that internal and external variables affecting and affected by the individual and with Watson’s theory that the person is affected by internal and external variables (Friberg, 2011).
A person’s environment is integral to their well-being, to their health. For a person to maintain their well-being and health, they need to maintain their environment. Political, financial, social and spiritual all influence a person’s environment and need to be maintained as to not become stressors that can negatively affect a person’s health. Florence Nightingale had an environmental theory of nursing. She felt that you utilized the environment of the patient to assist then in their recovery.
Her theory focused on changing and manipulating the environment in order to put the patient in the best possible conditions for nature to act (Nursing Theorist, 2013). We as nurses also need to make sure we create an environment that is conducive to healing so our patient feels safe. Nursing In developing my definition of nursing I found myself agreeing with Nightingale’s theory in that nursing is intended to relieve pain and suffering and restore health by manipulating the environment, Peplau’s heory in that nursing is a therapeutic interpersonal process, King’s theory that nursing is the art of action, reaction and interaction, Neuman’s systems model that nursing is concerned with variables affecting the individual’s response to stress and Watson’s theory that nursing is a transpersonal caring relationship (Friberg, 2011). In further research and reading on Watson, I agree caring is central to nursing practice. It promotes health better than a simple medical cure. She believed that using a holistic approach to health care is central to the practice of caring in nursing.
She believed that caring can be demonstrated and practiced by nurses; that is promoted growth (Jean Watson Nursing Theory: Philosophy and Science of Caring, 2013). I believe that a nurse needs to be available to their client both mentally and physically. You care for your client, their family, their community, their environment and their health. Theorist Wiedenbach feels that the nurse is a functional human being who acts, thinks, and feels. All actions, thoughts, and feelings underlie what the nurse does (Nursing Theorist, 2013). I feel that nursing needs to be therapeutic and non-judgmental, but most of all caring.
And in agreement with Watson and Nightingale I can sum up my definition into caring and compassion for my patient. The key concepts of nursing’s metaparadigm are the relationship of the person, health, environment, and nursing. This metaparadigm along with nursing theories and principles of teaching/learning are fundamental to nursing practice. In learning more about these concepts and different nursing theories I have come to find that as a nurse when I care for a patient, I care for their person physically and mentally, I care for their environment and create an environment and I care for their health (wellness and illness).
I cannot care for this patient without nursing all areas as they all affect one another so closely at times that you may not realize that you may be caring for all three at the same time. Bibliography Nursing Theories. (2013, January 1/26/2013). Retrieved from Theoretical Models and Framework of Nursing: http://nursingtheories. info/metaparadigm-in-nursing/ Nursing Theorist. (2013, January 26). Retrieved from RNpedia. com : http://www. rnpedia. com/home/notes/fundamentals-of-nursing-notes/nursing-theor
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