Main factors influencing work efficiency essay example
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Main factors influencing work efficiency

Beloor, V., et al. (2017), in their paper, Employee Commitment and Quality of Work Life–A Literature Review address the factors associated with components of QWL and components of Employee Commitment. From the study it was identified that employee commitment has three components they are Affective, Normative, Continuance commitment and QWL is a multidimensional construct that includes job satisfaction, adequate pay, work environment, organizational culture etc. These factors effects on the employee performance, productivity, absenteeism, retention rate etc. These QWL components effect on the commitment of employees towards the organization, and also enhance retention rate.

Toban, C.,& Sjahruddin, H. (2016), in their study aimed at examining and analyzing the effect of transformational leadership on organizational commitment, job satisfaction and performance of servants. The study used survey method with data collection in cross-section through a questionnaire. The sampling was done via stratified random sampling using 197 servants. Structural Equation Modeling was used to analyse the data and to test the hypothesis. Results of the study provided evidence that transformational leadership significantly affect the increase organizational commitment and job satisfaction. However, a good transformational leadership was not able to improve the performance of servants if it was not supported by organizational commitment and high job satisfaction. Organizational commitment and job satisfaction acted as complete mediation in explaining the effect of transformational leadership on servant’s performance.

Jaron, M., et al (2015), in their paper, assessed of the level of organizational commitment among the administrative employees of Yazaki-Torres Manufacturing, Inc. (YTM, Inc.) as a response to the view of organizational commitment as an issue of prime importance in managing organizations and running companies. Organizational commitment reduces absenteeism and increases profitability that is why there is a constant need to study, monitor, and control it. 77 administrative employees took part in the research and answered an 18-item standardized Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (Meyer, Allen, and Smith, 1993) in order to determine whether organizational commitment varies based on age, gender, civil status highest educational attainment, employment status, and tenure. The results showed that all demographic factors impact organizational commitment, except for gender that did not.
Also, it was found that affective commitment is the component in which most significant difference was recorded. Moreover, widowed respondents show a very high level of affective organizational commitment. On the other hand, respondents who reached high school and college levels both have a high level of normative organizational commitment.

WOŁOWSKA, A. (2014), in her paper Determinants of Organizational Commitment deals with a topic of organizational commitment. The main objective of presented research was to search for determinants of organizational commitment. According to Meyer and Allen (1997), all dimensions of commitment concern a relationship between an individual and an organization and an individual’s desire to remain in it or to abandon it, however, the strength of each dimension is conditioned by different factors. From this point of view, the researcher also uses Meyer and Allen three-component model of organizational commitment. The data for this study were collected from 330 Polish employees holding different forms of employment: classic employment (N = 198) and temporary work (N = 132). Participants were recruited from two organizations: state company (N = 205) and a private company (N = 125). The research has shown that work locus of control, breach of psychological contract and psychological climate had a significant influence on organizational commitment.

Wong, A., & Tong, C. (2014), in her paper used the five-component organizational commitment model of Wang (2004) that had provided a better explanation of organization commitment behaviour in her research. In order to evaluate the appropriateness of Wang’s model, this research used her five-component model in studying the organizational commitment in Hong Kong. This research also provided an evaluation of its results with other relevant research in Asian cities in order to compare the organizational commitment behaviour in this area. The data was collected from 310 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) professionals in Hong Kong. From the results it was visible that Wang’s model was more appropriate than other western models in describing employees’ commitment in Hong Kong. By comparing the data collected in this research and recent findings from other researchers in Asian cities, the evaluation of these results indicated that the level of organizational commitment in Hong Kong is higher than those in other Asian cities.

According to Brown, et al (2011) in their paper, Workplace Performance, Worker Commitment and Loyalty states that high employee commitment towards organization increases the job satisfaction among employees, job performance, overall productivity, sales and also high employee commitment decreases employee turnover, intention to leave and absenteeism.

Yousef, D. A. (2000), investigates the potential mediating role of organizational commitment in the relationships of leadership behavior with the work outcomes of job satisfaction and job performance in a non‐western country where multiculturalism is a dominant feature of the workforce. It also explored the moderating effects of national culture on the relationships of leadership behavior with organizational commitment, job satisfaction and job performance in such a setting. Results suggested (in support of many western studies) that those who perceive their superiors as adopting consultative or participative leadership behavior are more committed to their organizations, more satisfied with their jobs, and their performance is high.

Mullins (1999:815) concludes that a high level of employee commitment implies willingness to work for the organization’s benefit: but that its continuation depends on the reciprocal commitment by the organization to its members. In the current industrial climate, there needs to be concern not only for producing goods or services, but also for the encouragement of innovative, exploratory and creative ideas that go beyond what can be prescribed for the job, and for the application to work of intuitive as well as explicit knowledge. These multiple objectives can only be achieved if managers consider, with care, exactly what kinds of commitment they are aiming for, and design policies and practices accordingly.

Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1991), in their article, A three-component conceptualization of organizational commitment, go beyond the existing distinction between attitudinal and behavioural commitment and argue that commitment, as a psychological state, has at least three separable components reflecting (a) a desire (affective commitment), (b) a need (continuance commitment), and (c) an obligation (normative commitment) to maintain employment in an organization. Each component is considered to develop as a function of different antecedents and to have different implications for on-the-job behavior.

Mowday, R. T., Steers, R. M., & Porter, L. W. (1979), in their paper The measurement of organizational commitment, summarized a stream of research aimed at developing and validating a measure of employee commitment to work organizations. The instrument, developed by Porter and his colleagues, was called the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ). On the basis of series of studies among 2563 employees in nine divergent organizations, satisfactory test-retest reliabilities and internal consistency reliabilities were found. In addition, cross-validated evidence of acceptable levels of predictive, convergent, and discriminant validity emerged for the instrument.

The first and the independent variable in this research is OCTAPACE Culture that helps in examining the eight main values developed in an organizational culture. ‘OCTAPACE’ stands for Openness, Confrontation, Trust, Authenticity, Pro – activity, Autonomy, Collaboration and Experimentation. The Random House Dictionary defines ethos as ‘the fundamental character or spirit of a culture…. dominant assumptions of people or period”. Organisational ethos are core values. The eight values of organizational ethos were suggested (Rao & Pareek[1994]):

OPENNESS (O): There is freedom of communication between employees and employers. Employees feel free to express their idea and the organization is willing to take risks and experiment with new idea and new ways of doing things. The degree of openness of the organization is an important factor in determining the nature of various dimensions of HRD being designed, as well as the way in which these dimensions should be introduced. Example:
Confrontation (C): Employees face the problems and work jointly with others concerned to find its solution. They face the issues squarely without hiding them or avoiding them for fear of hurting each other. A deeper analysis of intra personal relation can also be attained. Organizations encourage people to recognize a problem, bring it to light, explore and understand the root cause and search for possible ways of dealing with it.
Trust (T): Trust is maintaining the confidentiality of information shared among the company. The extent to which employees individually and in groups trust each other and can be relied upon to do whatever they say they will do. If the level of trust is low, the various dimensions of HRS are likely to be seen with suspicion and therefore the credibility of the system may go down.
Authenticity (A): Authenticity is the value underlying trust. It is the willingness of a person to acknowledge the feelings he/she has, and to accept him/her as well as others who relate to him/her as persons. It reduces the dissonance between the employees. This value is important for the development of a culture of mutuality.
Proaction (P): Being pro-active is taking initiatives and actively thinking in advance. Employees are action-oriented, willing to take initiative and to show a high degree of proactivity. They anticipate the issues and act or respond to the needs of the future.
Autonomy (A): Autonomy is freedom of acting and planning at one’s own level. It is the willingness to use power without fear, and helping others to do the have freedom to act independently within the boundaries imposed by their role/job. It multiplies power in the system and the basis is collaboration. Autonomy lets the employee have a greater sense of responsibility, achievement and acceptance.
Collaboration (C): This involves working together and using one another’s strength for a common cause. Individuals, instead of solving their problems by themselves, share their concerns with one another and prepare strategies, work out plans of action and implement them together.
Experimentation (E): Experimentation is trying out new and innovative methods of work. Experimenting as a value emphasizes the importance given to innovation and trying out new ways of dealing with problems in the organization.

The second variable is Organization Commitment which is a dependent variable that helps to measure organizational commitment of the employees. Measure of organization commitment is as diverse as its definition. Acceptance of the organization’s values and goals, willingness to work to help the organizational, and a desire to remain with the organization are some of the significant factors related to commitment.

A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data. So research design is the blue-print for research (Ariya and Pal, 2004). This quantitative research study adopts the survey design to achieve the research objectives. In contemporary terminology, survey designs are also called correlational designs. Correlational field study is a study based on survey data collected from the field, (that is, in a non-contrived setting such as an organization) in which the relationship between one or more dependent variables and one or more independent variables is (are) examined (Tharenou, Dononhue and Cooper, 2007). Thus, this study adopted the descriptive, correlational field study (survey) design as the focus was to study the relationship between variables. The correlational study assessed the relationships between OCTAPACE Culture and Organizational Commitment. The sample was compared on the basis of their perceptions of 8 ethos of OCTAPACE and organizational commitment. These OCTAPACE culture and its 8 ethos are independent variables. The respondents who fully completed their questionnaires during the group administration process were taken as the sample.

In this study, the data was collected from 100 working professionals who belonged to manufacturing & education sectors in Ahmedabad. A stratified random sampling was used to collect this data. Of these participants, 60 samples belonged to manufacturing sector & 40 samples were from education sector. The data consisted of 50 samples each in male and female category. The mean age of these participants was 37.13 in which 50% belonged to Generation X (38 years – 53 years) and rest 50% belonged to Generation Y (19 years – 37 years).
OCTAPACE Profile was developed by Udai Pareek (2003) and it specifically measures organizational ethos in 8 values of Openness, Confrontation, Trust, Authenticity, Pro-action, Autonomy, Collaboration, Experimentation. The instrument consists of 40 items. To achieve the objectives, these 40 items were evaluated on a 4-point scale. The questionnaire is further divided into two sections; value dimensions (first 24) and belief dimensions (next 16). The items were to be answered on 4-point Likert scale.

The instrument was developed by Mowday Steers, and Porter (1979) to measure three commitment factors:- Acceptance of the organization’s values and goals, willingness to work to help the organizational, and a desire to remain with the organizational although the questions top three factors. The questionnaire consists 15 items that are to be answered on 7-point Likert scale (where, 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = moderately disagree, 3 = slightly disagree, 4 = neither disagree nor agree, 5 = slightly agree, 6 = moderately agree, 7 = strongly agree). The scores of all the factors are to be combined to yield one overall commitment score.

The research has been computed through Quantitative analysis of primary data collection. Proper standardized questionnaires were pertaining to the study. In order to conduct the data collection, the questionnaires were handed to the employees in their workplace and the participants were asked to respond in a silent environment. The participants were well informed about the research and its purpose before they agreed to fill in the questionnaires. Each response was classified and anonymity was maintained. An individual response took approximately 15 minutes. They were given the questionnaires in the order of Demographic details sheet followed by OCTAPACE Culture Questionnaire and Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ).

Statistical analysis gives the idea of the overall distribution of the observation in the data set and is together called Descriptive Analysis. In this research 2 data analysis methods were used, namely: Descriptive analysis (Average mean) and Correlation. The data was analyzed using the Analysis Tool Pak available in Microsoft Excel.

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Descriptive statistics was used to provide quantitative descriptions in manageable form. Using descriptive statistics, the mean and the standard deviation for the eight variables of OCTAPACE and the Positive & Negative items of the Organizational Commitment Questionnaire being tested were found in order to arrange the data for better explanation.

Correlation is a bivariate analysis that measures the strengths of association between two variables and the direction of the relationship. It is a statistical technique that can show whether and how strongly pairs of variables are related. In terms of the strength of the relationship, the value of the correlation coefficient varies between -1 and +1. It was used to calculate the relationship between the Independent and dependent variable and its sub factors.

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