A History of the World in 6 Glasses (Questions/Answers) Spirits 1) From which advanced civilization did Europeans get the ‘science’ of how to make spirits? A) The Arabs, who first started distilling wine and other substances for their experiments. 2) In what ways was the discovery and use of distillation important to the rebirth of science in Europe? A) Distillation and distilled wine were considered a therapeutic and medicinal miracle. It went hand in hand with the infant science of perfume making and helped the rebirth of science in Europe by introducing new chemistry principals and by translating texts into many different languages.
Ancient texts from Greece, India, and Persia were all centralized and translated in to Arabic, and as the technology of distillation spread, those texts were translated to Latin, which could be read by educated people throughout Europe. 3) How did spirits advance/accelerate colonialism? A) Spirits were easily transported on ships because they were much more durable and less likely to spoil then wine. Spirits soon became a sort of currency among slave traders, who basically turned the Africans who provided the slaves into alcoholics, then used spirits to barter for the slave labor they needed to run the huge limitations in the colonies. ) In the 18th century, how did spirits help Britain have a more superior Ana than France? A) Sailors in the 18th century faced many dangers, but probably the most common was a disease called scurvy, which comes from a lack of vitamin C, commonly found in citrus. Because citrus spoils easily on long voyages, it was impractical for ships to carry large amounts of the fruit onboard. In 1655, rum was substituted in the place of beer on Royal Navy ships, and it quickly became the preferred drink throughout the Navy.
To decrease cases of intoxication, it was ordered that rum be mixed with two pints of water, which, more importantly, was mixed with sugar and lime Juice. When the inclusion of lime Juice became mandatory in 1795, the incidence of scurvy dropped dramatically, making the British crews overall much healthier. The French however gave their sailors wine, which was replaced on long voyages with AAU-De-vie, which has no vitamin C. The result was a lowered resistance to scurvy, Just as the British resistance was increasing. 5) How did spirits help build America?
A) Rum, a spirit that was developed in the New World, became immensely popular in the colonies. Made of sugar by-product, something plentiful throughout the plantations of the Caribbean, it was cheaper and stronger then the European made wine and beer, which was known to spoil on the long trip across the Atlantic. The drink soon became especially popular in New England, where they decided to start producing it themselves instead of importing it. This first step towards self- statement made a lot of people realize that they didn’t have to depend on England, that they could produce everything they needed, themselves. ) What were the negative effects/uses of spirits? A) There were many negative uses of spirits during that time. Spirits were much stronger and had a higher alcohol content then the traditional wine and beer that such as taverns, exploited spirits. The result was wide spread intoxication, as well as an increase in violence. People who drink an excess of Rum become violent, and with rum so widely available for people of every class it meant that the amount of alcohol related incidents of aggression went up. Spirits also played a negative role in the slave trade.
They became the main currency throughout the slave trading process, where European traders introduced the beverage to African slave traders in order to build a dependence on their product. As a result, with the more spirits produced, more slaves were bought, and more sugar cane by-product was produced, increasing the production of drinks such as rum. Rum was also used to make slave subordinate. They were given rations of rum that effectively turned them into alcoholics, completely at the mercy of those who supplied the spirits. Coffee 1) Who did the Europeans get coffee from and how did it spread to Europe?
A) Coffee originated in Yemen, Arabia where it was viewed as a religious beverage. Over time it spread to Mecca and Cairo, where it became a recreational drink to be drunk in a social manner in large coffee houses. It also became a popular substitute for alcohol, which was banned under Islam. Europeans traveling in the Middle East came upon coffee and coffeehouses and commented on their popularity. But it wasn’t until 1652, when an Armenian servant named Passes Rose opened the first coffee house in London, that coffee transformed from a little known novelty into a wide spread phenomenon.
When, in 1658, Cromwell died and public opinion swung in the favor of a new monarchy, coffee houses became central in political debates and commercial business. The trend quickly caught on and coffee houses became fashionable throughout Europe. ) Why was it so important to Rupee’s development that many people’s beverage of choice switched from alcohol to coffee? A) Unlike alcohol’s intoxicating effect, which made people sleepy and dulled their minds, coffee woke people up and made scientists, clerks, merchants and other businessmen more alert throughout the long workday.
Coffeehouses also became places for people to exchange and listen to new ideas and theories in areas such as natural history, chemistry, and physics. They became know as places where people could learn about new things and higher thinking. As a result a new age of self education, available to anyone, even if they didn’t have the meaner to attend university or other academic pursuits. This widespread boom in learning meant that new ideas were tested faster, results were passed on quicker, and new minds from all levels of society began to weigh in. ) Describe coffee’s effect on the global balance of power in terms of commerce. A) Coffee has made many countries and their colonies very key players in the world of commerce. For many years coffee production was limited to the Arabian Peninsula and for obvious reasons, as the drinks popularity grew in Europe, the Arabs protected this monopoly zealously. That, along with the spice trade centered there, meant that the Arabian Peninsula was a dominant player in global commerce. But that changed when Dutch sailors managed to procure cuttings from the coffee plant and cultivate them in greenhouses.
Large plantations were set up in Dutch colonies, and they soon dominated the coffee trade by producing and exporting coffee much more cheaply then the Arabs could. The French were the next to benefit from the coffee phenomenon, when in 1723 a French sailor by the name of Gabriel He stole a cutting from the royal tree and made off for Martinique. There, cuttings ere spread throughout the region. Eventually Brazil became the world’s largest supplier and the Arabian Peninsula faded into obscurity. 4) How did coffee play a pivotal role in the scientific revolution?
A) Coffeehouses became the centers of academic discussion throughout Europe. One of the most popular topics was “natural philosophy’ or science. Coffee promoted the exchange of ideas between both students and scientists and ideas floated between many different fields, all while in a relaxing and refreshing environment. Theories could be passed on and discussed over time since many people frequented only one coffeehouse. Scientific debate in coffeehouses became so mainstream at the time that Britain’s Royal Society, the main scientific institute at the time, favored them as the main place to exchange and try out ideas.
Wren, Hook and Halley, three members, discussed the theory of gravity, which progressed to whether or not elliptical shapes of planetary orbits were consistent with gravitational force that diminished with the inverse square of distance. A few months later when Wren met Isaac Newton in Cambridge, he asked the famous scientist the very same question they had debated. Newton said that yes, n inverse-square law of gravity would give rise to elliptical orbits, but he had no proof. That same year, Newton, having become determine to prove this theory, sent Halley a paper with the proof he had discovered.
Halley went on to publish “Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy. ” If it were not for coffeehouses, Wren, Hook and Halley may never have discussed this topic, leading to one of the most important scientific discoveries. 5) How did coffee play a pivotal role in what is known as the “financial revolution”? A) Before there were organized stock and insurance arrest, businessmen would commonly meet in coffeehouses to discuss these affairs. For example, if you could get insurance from someone at the coffeehouse, you could also get a loan, thus providing yourself with the meaner to start a business.
However such ways of doing business were ineffective and unrecognized. There was no reliable way to ensure that debts were paid and information could be unreliable. This lead to the first central financial centers, which were the predecessors to today’s modern London Stock Exchange. 6) How did coffee play a pivotal role in the French Revolution? A) The French revolution literally started in a coffee shop. It was in the Cafe© De Boy that, on July 12 1789, Camille Despoiling Jumped on to a table outside, brandished a pistol and called his fellow citizens to arms.
The king had dismissed the one member of government the people trusted and they were fearful that the military would come and begin killing those in the crowd that had gathered in the gardens of the Appall Royal. Because of this unrest, Dissension’s cry was taken up and Paris descended into the chaos of revolution. Coffee also played a large part before hand. The Enlightenment was a cultural movement of intellectuals wanting to reform society using reason and science. Such people, most notably those such as Voltaire, Nonentities and Rousseau, were known to spend much of their time at coffee shops.
There the rural poor and the slightly wealthier members of the bourgeoisie mingled and the contrast between new ideas about how the world could be and how it was now became painfully apparent. It was these radical new ideas, coupled with the resentment towards the ancient regime, which provided the fuel which 1) If the sun never set on the British Empire, then it was always [blank] somewhere? A) If the sun never set on the British Empire, then it was always perpetually teatime nowhere. 2. What were the health benefits of tea? How would this beverage help human development?
A) Tea supposedly, “quenches the thirst, lessens the desire for sleep, and gladdens and cheers the heart. ” Rubbing leaves on wounds helps them heal due to the antiseptic properties of tannic acid naturally found in tea, which also helped decrease waterborne illnesses such as typhoid, cholera, and dysentery by killing the bacteria that caused them. This expanded the average lifespan and lowered the rate of infant mortality. 3. Which conquering people established the largest connected land empire in history? A) The largest connected land empire in history, stretching from Hungary to Korea to Vietnam.
The Mongols, specifically Genesis Khan and his sons established it. 4) When Europeans first reached China, describe the relationship between the groups. A) The relationship between the Europeans and China was one of distrust and condescension. The Chinese viewed the Europeans as barbarians, to be kept at an arms length and not encouraged. The Chinese thought that their country was the best and since they had the best technology at the time, they thought the Europeans were there to imitate them and Hough that free trade would have a corrupting influence.
As a result only the Portuguese could directly trade with China and even then the trade was limited to porcelain and silk. Unfortunately the Europeans had nothing of value to offer the Chinese other then gold and silver, due to the fact that China was leaps and bounds ahead of the Europeans in almost every field. China was also completely self sufficient, unlike Europe who had a strong reliance on foreign goods. As a result the Chinese had very little motivation to open its doors to foreign trade. 5. The consumption of tea skyrocketed in England during the [blank] century?
A) During the end of the eighteenth century tea consumption skyrocketed in England. 6. What rights and powers did the British East India Company acquire that made it the most powerful corporation ever? A) The most important part of the East India Company was its monopoly on imports from the East Indies to England. They also received royal favor as a result of gift of fine tea to King Charles, which lead to many privileges such as the rights maintain an army, issue currency, declare war, form alliances, make peace and dispense Justice.
These privileges and the monopoly, in addition to he skillful way the company fostered, profited, and expanded the tea trade made it the most powerful corporation ever. 7) Direct British trade with [blank] in the early 18th century allowed the prices to fall so much that everyone could afford tea. A) Direct British trade with China in the early 18th century allowed the prices to fall so much that everyone could afford tea. 8) Britain had complete domination over trade in the East when it defeated its main rival, the [blank] in the commercial wars of the 18th century.
A) Britain had complete domination over trade in the East when it fatted its main rival, Portuguese in the in the commercial wars of the 18th century. 10) As Adam Smith’s theory of ‘[blank] trade’ gained popularity in Britain, Parliament ended the East India Company’s monopoly of trade in Asia. A) As Adam Smith’s theory of free trade’ gained popularity in Britain, Parliament ended the East India Company’s monopoly of trade in Asia. 1) Describe the Opium Wars, its impact, and tea’s role in 1842 and from 1856 to 1870,respectively, were fought over the trade and diplomatic relations between China and the British Empire, mostly centering around the trade of tea between the two nations. When these wars finally ended, a new market had been born. Finally, China would start trading tea more openly, allowing several cultural and economical changes on both sides. Tea became more readily available, thus the price dropped, allowing it to become more accessible to the working class, fueling the tea craze.
China became more modern and westernizes as a result of more frequent contact with Europe and Europeans. 12) Describe how tea changed history in America, China and India. Give LOTS of information here. A) Tea was a staple import of the United Kingdom, which used to have possession of the 13 colonies of America, s well as colonies in India and Hong Kong. These three countries maintained a strong trade network with the United Kingdom. At first, China was the world’s tea supplier, until the British became suspicious of the Chinese holding monopoly over tea exports.
Because the colonies in India were easily controlled at the time, Britain formulated a plan to introduce tea to the region. They decided to start the British East India Company, granting them East India as a second supplier. It was the Tea Act of 1773 that infuriated the colonists and caused the Tea Party, fueling the flames of revolution and later, independence. India became more developed as the result of increased interest in the area and like previously mentioned, tea opened China up to the rest of the world, leading to its modernization.
The demand for tea also started or participated in many global processes, including silk routes, the spread of Buddhism and Taoism, the industrial revolution, the Rise of West argument, imperialism, and new technologies. Railroads and steamships were being invented and built, easing the importing and exporting of tea and reducing tea costs. Coca-Cola 1 . What was so special about the American production method? A) Coca-Cola prepared manufacturing from assembly, meaning that Coca-Cola could be mass- produced, allowing American consumers to buy as much as they wanted. 2. By 1900, what global economic shift had occurred?
It comes in a designer bottle from a mountain spring in Fiji, though, in fact, more than half the people in Fiji do not have reliable drinking water. While we’re indulging ourselves with bottled water from what is actually a well near a chemical waste facility, one out of six people in the world have no dependable, safe drinking water. All of this suggests about modern society that people are more interested in the luxurious convenience of bottled water, rather then turning to a ore environmentally friendly, though perhaps less fancy, tap water.
Studies proving that tap water is Just as safe as bottled water as well as being better for the environment and humanity are being swiftly ignored. 3) How many people have no access to safe water today? A) One in six people, or about 768 million people have no access to safe water and 2. 5 billion people live without proper sanitation. 4) How has access to water affected international relations? A) For centuries war and conflict has been tied to protecting water resources. Water has become a major cause of disputes in the Middle East and in North Africa.
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